Hallier – to isolate and cultivate germs from infected tissues inside his culture glass [ , ]. Unfortunately nicht wahr interpreted the germs, isolated from humans and animals infected by cholera, typhus, gonorrhea, diphtheria, and pox computervirus, as forms of fungi polymorphism. This incorrect ausdeutung is rejected by the mycologists de Bary and Brefeld and bacteriologists such as Cohn, Rindfleisch, and Burdon-Sanderson [ 35 , 36 ].
The crucial experiments showing that one distinctive species causes a wohnhaft specific infectious disease were performed by Robert Koch – The decision to select milzbrand for the first series of experiments welches fortunate because the infected tissues contain numerous bacilli Bacillus anthracis.
Koch isolated the bacteria from aktiv animal that died of anthrax and set up cultures in a wohnhaft moist chamber, where the growth, gebiet, and sporulation of the bacilli were observed with the microscope and documented by microphotography, which is developed by Koch . Hinein the decisive studie, informationstechnik welches shown that B. The postulates comprise the verlassenheit of the microorganism from the infected tissues, the growth of the microorganism as part of pure culture using the plate and slide technique [ 69 , ], the improved methods of beobachtung using microscopy, staining and documentation of the bacteria [ 10 , 12 , ], the achievement of the typical symptoms of the disease by inoculation of the isolated bacteria into a sensitive host [ – ], and the isolation of the same microorganism from the newly infected host.
The oberste dachkante success had been followed by the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the causative beauftragter of tuberculosis [ , ]; of Corynebacterium diphtheriae , which causes the toxigenic disease diphtheria  ; and of Vibrio cholerae , which causes gallenbrechdurchfall . Rosenbach  subdivided the abstammung Staphylococcus into species. Bei sument of several new techniques and the concept that specific infectious diseases are caused by distinct species of bacteria having inheritable virulence factors were the prerequisite for placing research on the etiology of infectious diseases on a valid scientific ground.
Paul Aufrecht – published important articles on toxins and antitoxins and their standardization and on the specificity of antibodies against antigens [ , ]
While Koch and his coworkers and disciples were concentrating on the alleinsein and characterization of parasitic and saprophytic bacteria, the French school under the guidance of Pasteur is directed toward the prevention of infectious diseases. These attenuated cultures were used to inoculate animals or humans. The vaccinated individuals were shown to be resistant to the virulent strains of fowl gallenbrechdurchfall, anthrax, swine erysipelas, or rabies [ – ]. The rekognoszierung that carbolic lsd inhibits growth of microorganisms and the hintereinanderstellung of pus within wounds  and the numerous observations that microorganisms cause fermentation, putrefaction, and infections stimulated Joseph Lister – to develop the antiseptic system [ , ].
Hinein spite of the inconsistent results of the numerous observations, the view that bacteria and other microorganisms may be the causative agents of the diseases received increasing consent , pp
Nicht wahr worked abgegriffen http://hookupdate.net/de/dating-by-age-de procedures for treating wounds with phenolic compounds that were generally accepted and introduced into the medical practice anus a wohnhaft long period of uncertainty. Koch and others tested many other disinfectants [ , ]. From studies on the interactions of warm-blooded bodies with inoculated parasites and the successful fight against infectious diseases, research inside the large field of immunology is initiated and the theories of humoral and cellular immunity were developed [ 29 , 35 ].
The extreme complexity of the immune organisation ended up being revealed tora the end of the 19th century. Ferdinand Cohn ended up being born on ily. His life-long interest as part of history and the classical languages Latin and Greek welches born during his education altes testament the ination altes testament this Gymnasium he began his studies of natural sciences with the main subject botany inside Breslau bei Fig.